Academic bibliography on attitudes to the European Union


Anderson, C. (1998), ‘When in doubt use proxies; attitudes towards domestic politics and support for European integration’, Comparative Political Studies, 31: 569-601.

Anderson, C., and Reichart, M. (1996), ‘Economic benefits and support for membership in the EU: a cross-national analysis’, Journal of Public Policy, 15: 231-49.

Arnorsson, A. & Zoega, G. (2018), ‘On the causes of Brexit’ European Journal of Political Economy 55, pp. 301-323.

Ash, T. (2002), ‘Is Britain European?’, International Affairs, 77: 1-14.

Ashcroft, M. and Culwick, K. (2016), Well, You Did Ask….Why the UK Voted to Leave the EU, London: Biteback.

Baker, D., Gamble, A., Randall, N. and Seawright D. (2008), ‘Euroscepticism in the British Party System: A Source of Fascination, Perplexity, and Sometimes Frustration’ In: Szczerbiak, A.and Taggart, P. (eds) Opposing Europe? The Comparative Party Politics of EuroscepticismVolume 1, Case Studies and Country Surveys. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Becker, S.O., Fetzer, T. & Novy, D. (2017), ‘Who voted for Brexit? A comprehensive district-level analysis’ Economic Policy 32(92), pp.601-650.

Benson, M. et al. (2018), ‘What does freedom of movement mean to British citizens living in the EU27?’ Available at:

Benson, M., O’Reilly, K. & Collins, K. (2018), ‘What does Brexit mean for UK citizens living in the EU27? Talking citizens’ rights with UK citizens across the EU27’. Available at:

Blinder, S. & Richards, L. (2020), UK Public Opinion toward Immigration: Overall Attitudes and Level of Concern Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford. Available at:

Blinder, S. (2015), ‘Imagined Immigration: The Impact of Different Meanings of Immigrants in Public Opinion and Policy Debates in Britain’, Political Studies, 63: 80-100.

Boomgaarden, H., Schuck, A., Elenbaas, M. and de Vreese, C. (2011), ‘Mapping EU attitudes: Conceptual and empirical dimensions of Euroscepticism and EU support’, European Union Politics, 12: 241–266.

Butler, D. and Ktzinger, U. (1976), The 1975 Referendum, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Carey, S. (2002), ‘Undivided loyalties: is national identity an obstacle to European integration?’, European Union Politics, 3: 387-413.

Carreras, M., Irepoglu Carreras, Y. & Bowler, S. (2019), ‘Long term economic distress, cultural backlash, and support for Brexit’ Comparative Political Studies, 52(9), pp.1396-1424

Carl, N. (2018), ‘CSI Brexit 4: Reasons Why People Voted Leave or Remain’ Centre for Social Investigation Available at:

Clarke, H.D., Goodwin, M. & Whiteley, P. (2017), ‘Why Britain voted for Brexit: an individual-level analysis of the 2016 referendum vote’ Parliamentary Affairs, 70(3) pp. 439-464.

Clarke, H.D., Goodwin, M. & Whiteley, P. (2017), Brexit: Why Britain voted to leave the European Union Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clements, B. (2009), ‘The sociological and psychological influences on public support for the European Union in Britain, 1983–2005’, British Politics, 4: 47–82.

Curtice, J. (2012), ‘In Europe but not of Europe’, Juncture, 19:199-204.

Curtice, J. (2016), ‘How deeply does Britain’s Euroscepticism run?’, in Curtice, J., Phillips, M. and Clery, E. (eds), British Social Attitudes; the 33rd report, London: NatCen Social ResearchAvailable at

Curtice, J. and Evans, G. (2015), ‘Britain and Europe: Are we all Eurosceptics now?’, in Ormston, R. and Curtice, J. (eds), British Social Attitudes: the 32nd report, London: NatCen Social Research. Available at

Curtice, J. (2016), ‘Not the end my friend: Labour, the referendum result and the challenges that remain’, Juncture, 23: 18-21.

Curtice, J. & Montagu, I. (2019) ‘Has Brexit polarised Britain?’ in Curtice, J., Clery, E., Perry, J., Phillips M. and Rahim, N. (eds) (2019), British Social Attitudes: The 36th Report, London: The National Centre for Social Research. Available at:

Curtice, J. & Montagu, I. (2018), ‘How Brexit has created a new divide in the nationalist movement’ in Phillips, D., Curtice, J., Phillips, M. and Perry, J. (eds) British Social Attitudes: The 35th Report, London: The National Centre for Social Research Available at:

Curtice, J. (2016), ‘A question of culture or economics? Public attitudes to the European Union in Britain’. The Political Quarterly87(2), pp.209-218.

Curtice, J. (2017), ‘Why Leave won the UK’s EU referendum’. J. Common Mkt. Stud.55, p.19.

Curtice, J. (2017), ‘Hard, but not too hard: much more on what voters want from Brexit’ NatCen Social Research, London.

Curtice, J. (2017), ‘Half-time in the Brexit negotiations: The voters’ scorecard’ NatCen Social Research, London.

Curtice, J. (2018), ‘The Emotional Legacy of Brexit: How Britain has become a country of “Remainers” and “Leavers”’ NatCen Social Research, London.

Curtice, J. (2018), ‘Do voters still want to leave the EU? How they view the Brexit process two years on’ NatCen Social Research, London.

Curtice, J. (2018) ‘Just 15 months to go: What Scotland is making of Brexit’ NatCen Social Research, London.

Deflem, M. and Pampel, F. (1996), ‘The myth of postnational identity: popular support for European integration’, Social Forces, 75: 119-43.

Eichenberg, R. and Dalton, R. (1993), ‘Europeans and the European Community; the dynamics of public support for European integration’, International Organization, 47: 507-34.

Evans, G. (1998), ‘How Britain views the EU’, in Jowell, R., Curtice, J., Park, A., Brook, L., Thomson, K. and Bryson, C. (eds), British – and European Social Attitudes: the 15th report: How Britain Differs, Aldershot: Ashgate.

Evans, G. (1999), ‘Europe: A New Electoral Cleavage?’, in Evans, G. and Norris, P. (eds), Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective, London: Sage.

Evans, G. and Butt, S. (2005), ‘Leaders or followers? Parties and public opinion on the European Union’, in Park, A., Curtice, J., Thomson, K., Bromley, C., Phillips, M. and Johnson, M. (eds), British Social Attitudes: the 22nd report, London: Sage.

Evans, G. and Butt, S. (2007), ‘Explaining change in British public opinion on the European Union; top down or bottom up?’ Acta Politica, 42: 173-90.

Evans, G. and Mellon, J. (2019), ‘Immigration, Euroscepticism and the rise and fall of UKIP’ Party Politics, 25(1), pp.76-87.

Evans, G. and Menon, A. (2017), Brexit and British Politics John Wiley & Sons.

Fetzer, T. (2019), ‘Did austerity cause Brexit?’ American Economic Review109 (11), pp.3849-86.

Flickinger, R. (1994), ‘British political parties and public attitudes towards the European Community; leading, following or getting out of the way?’, in Broughton, D., Farrell, D., Denver, D., and Rallings, C. (eds), British Elections and Parties Yearbook 1994, London: Frank Cass.

Ford, R. and Goodwin. M. (2014), Revolt in the Right: Explaining support for the radical right in Britain, London: Routledge.

Ford, R. and Goodwin, M. (2017), ‘Britain after Brexit: A nation divided’ Journal of Democracy, 28(1), pp. 17-30.

Ford, R. and Heath, A. (2014), ‘Immigration: A Nation Divided?’, in Park, A., Curtice, J. and Bryson, C. (eds), British Social Attitudes 31, London: NatCen Social Research. Available at

Franklin, M., van ser Eijk, C., and Marsh, M. (1995), ‘Referendum outcomes and trust in government: Public support for Europe in the wake of Maastricht’, West European Politics, 18: 101-17.

Franklin, M., Marsh, M. and McLaren, L. (1994), ‘Uncorking the bottle: popular opposition to European unification in the wake of Maastricht’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 32: 455-72.

Gabel, M. (1998), Interests and Integration: Market Liberalization, Public Opinion and the European Union, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Gabel, M. (1998), ‘Public support for European integration: an empirical test of five theories’, Journal of Politics, 60: 333-54.

Gabel, M. and Palmer, H. (1995), ‘Understanding variation in public support for European integration’, European Journal of Political Research, 27: 3-19.

Garry, J., Marsh, M. and Sinnott, R. (2005), ‘“Second Order” versus “Issue Voting” effects in EU referendums: Evidence from the Irish Nice Treaty referendums’, European Union Politics, 6: 201-21.

Garry, J. and Tilley, J. (2009), ‘The macroeconomic factors conditioning the impact of identity on attitudes towards the EU’, European Union Politics, 10: 361-79.

Garry, J., McNicholl, K., O’Leary, B. & Pow, J. (2018) ‘Northern Ireland and the UK’s Exit from the EU: What do people think?’ Available at:

George, S. (2000), ‘Britain: Anatomy of a Eurosceptic state’, Journal of European Integration, 22: 15-33.

Gilland, K. (2002), ‘Ireland’s first referendum on the Treaty of Nice’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 40: 527-35.

Goodwin, M. and Milazzo, C. (2015), UKIP: Inside the Campaign to Redraw the Map of British Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Goodwin, M. and Milazzo, C. (2017), ‘Taking back control? Investigating the role of immigration in the 2016 vote for Brexit’ The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19(3), pp.450-464.

Goodwin, M., Hix, S. & Pickup, M. (2018), ‘For and Against Brexit: A Survey Experiment of the Impact of Campaign Effects on Public Attitudes toward EU membership’ British Journal of Political Science pp.1-15

Hainsworth, P. (2006), ‘France says No: The 29 May 2005 referendum on the European Constitution’, Parliamentary Affairs, 58: 98-117.

Halikiopoulou, D. and Vlandas, T. (2017), ‘Voting to Leave: Economic insecurity and the Brexit vote’ In: The Routledge handbook of Euroscepticism pp. 444-455. Routledge.

Hayward, K. & Komarova, M. (2019), ‘The Border Into Brexit: Perspectives from Local Communities in the Central Border Region of Ireland/Northern Ireland’ Queens University Belfast.

Heath, A., Jowell, R., Taylor, B. and Thomson, K. (1998), ‘Euroscepticism and the Referendum Party, British Elections & Parties Review, 8: 95-110.

Heath, O. & Goodwin, M. (2017), ‘The 2017 general election, Brexit and the return to two-party politics: An aggregate level analysis of the result’ The Political Quarterly, 88(3), pp.345-358.

Henderson, A., Jeffrey, C., Liñeira, R., Scully, R., Wincott, D. & Wyn Jones, R. (2016), ‘England, Englishness and Brexit’ The Political Quarterly, 87(2) pp.187-199.

Henderson, A., Jeffrey, C., Wincott, D. and Wyn Jones, R. (2017), ‘How Brexit was made in England’ The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19(4) pp.631-646.

Hix, S. (2007), ‘Euroscepticism as anti-centralization: a rational choice institutionalist perspective’, European Union Politics, 8: 131-50.

Hobolt, S. (2006), ‘How parties affect vote choice in European integration referendums’, Party Politics, 12: 623-47.

Hobolt, S. (2009), Europe in Question: Referendums on European Integration, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hobolt, S. (2016), ‘The Brexit Vote: a divided nation, a divided continent’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23: 1259-77.

Hobolt, S. (2018), ‘Brexit and the 2017 UK general election’ Journal of Common Market Studies, 56(S1), pp.39-50.

Hobolt, S., Leeper, T. & Tilley, J. (2018) ‘Divided by the vote: Affective polarization in the wake of Brexit’ American Political Science Association, Boston.

Hooghe, L. (2003), ‘Europe Divided? Elites vs. Public Opinion on European Integration, European Union Politics 4: 281-304.

Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. (2004), ‘Does identity or economic rationality drive public opinion on European integration?’, Ps: Political Science and Politics, 37: 415-20.

Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. (2005), ‘Calculation, Community and Cues: Public Opinion on European Integration’, European Union Politics, 6: 418-43.

Hug, S. (2002), Voices of Europe: Citizens, Referendums and European Integration, Boulder, Co.: Rowman and Littlefield.

Iaknis, E., Rathbun, B., Reifler, J. & Scotto, T.J (2018), ‘Populist referendum: Was ‘Brexit’ an expression of nativist and anti-elitist sentiment?’ Research & Politics, 5(2).

Inglehart, R., Rabier, J. and Reif, K. (1991), ‘The evolution of public attitudes towards European integration, 1970-86’, in Reif, K. and Inglehart, R. (eds), Eurobarometer: The Dynamics of Public Opinion, London: Macmillan.

Ivaldi, G. (2006), ‘Beyond France’s 2005 referendum on the European Constitutional Treaty: Second-order model, anti-establishment attitudes and the end of the alternative European utopia’, West European Politics, 29: 47-69.

Janssen, J. (1991), ‘Postmaterialism, cognitive mobilisation and public support for European integration’, British Journal of Political Science  21: 443-68.

Joseph Rowntree Foundation & UK in a Changing Europe (2019), What do People want from Brexit? Available here:

Kriesi, H., Grande, E., Lachat, R., Dolezal, M., Borschnier, S. and Frey, T. (2006), ‘Globalization and the transformation of the national political space: Six European countries compared’ European Journal of Political Research, 45: 921–956.

Luedtke, A. (2005), ‘European Integration, Public Opinion and Immigration Policy’, European Union Politics, 6: 83-112.

McEwen, N. (2018), ‘Brexit and Scotland: between two unions’ British Politics, 13(1), pp. 65-78.

McLaren, L. (2002), ‘Public support for the European Union: cost-benefit analysis or perceived cultural threat?’, Journal of Politics, 64: 551-566

McLaren, L. (2004), ‘Opposition to integration and fear of loss of national identity: debunking a basic assumption regarding hostility to the integration project’, European Journal of Political Research, 43: 895-912.

McLaren, L. (2006), Identity, Interests and Attitudes to European Integration, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Medrano, J. (2003), Framing Europe: Attitudes to European Integration on Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Menon, A. et al. (2018) ‘Brexit and Public Opinion 2018’ Available at:

Menon, A. et al. (2019), ‘Brexit and Public Opinion 2019’ Available at:

Migration Observatory (2011), Thinking behind the numbers: Understanding public opinion on immigration in Britain, Oxford: Migration Observatory, available at:

Morris, M. (2018), ‘Public attitudes to Brexit: the referendum was more a vote for re-regulation than for de-regulation’ British Politics and Policy at LSE Available at:

Park, Y. & Kim, Y. (2018) ‘Explaining the Brexit Referendum: The Role of Worker Skill Level in Voter Decisions’ The Political Quarterly, 89(4), pp.640-648

Political Quarterly, Vol, 87, Issue 3, July-Sept. 2016. Special Post-Referendum Issue.

Political Quarterly, Vol. 87, Issue 2, April-June 2016. Special Pre-Referendum Issue.

Renwick, A., Allan, S., Jennings, R., McKee, R., Russell, M. & Smith, G. (2017), ‘A Considered Public Voice on Brexit: The Report of the Citizens’ Assembly of Brexit.’

Richards, L., Carl, N. & Heath, A. (2017), ‘CSI Brexit 3: National identity and support for leave versus remain’ Centre for Social Investigation Available at:

Richards, L. & Heath, A. (2017) ‘CSI Brexit 1: How Much are People Willing to Pay for the Brexit Divorce Bill?’ Centre for Social Investigation Available here:

Saglie, J. (2000), ‘Values, perceptions and European integration: The case of the Norwegian 1994 referendum’, European Union Politics, 1(2): 227-49.

Schwartz, C., Simon, M., Hudson, D. & Hudson, J. (2020), ‘A Populist Paradox? How Brexit Softened Anti-Immigration Attitudes’ British Journal of Political Science

Sides, J. and Citrin, J. (2007), ‘European opinion about immigration: the role of identities, interests and information’, British Journal of Political Science, 37: 477-504.

Siune, K. and Svensson, P. (1993), ‘The Danes and the Maastricht Treaty: The Danish EC referendum of June 1992’, Electoral Studies, 12: 99-111.

Siune, K., Svensson, P.  and Tonsgaard, O. (1994), ‘The Danes said “No” in 1992 but “Yes” in 1993: How and Why?’ Electoral Studies, 13: 107-16.

Spiering, M. (2004), ‘British Euroscepticism’, in Harmsen, R. & Spiering, M. (eds) Euroscepticism: Party politics, national identity and European integration, Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Steenbergen, M.R., Edwards, E.E. and de Vries, C.E. (2007), ‘Who’s cueing whom? Mass-elite linkages and the future of European integration’, European Union Politics, 8: 13–35.

Svensson, P. (2002), ‘Five Danish referendums on the European Community and the European Union: A critical assessment of the Franklin thesis’, European Journal of Political Research, 41: 733-50.

Vasilopoulou, S. (2015), Mixed Feelings: Britain’s conflicted attitudes to the EU before the referendum, London: Policy Network, 2015.

Vasilopoulou, S. & Talving, L. (2019), ‘British public opinion on Brexit: controversies and contradictions’ European Political Science, 18(1), pp. 134-142.

Worre, T. (1995), ‘First No, then Yes: the Danish referendums on the Maastricht Treaty 1992 and 1993’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 33: 235-58.